CHAPTER II.

CROSS QUESTIONS.

"The Man in the Wilderness asked of me 'How many strawberries grow in the sea?'" __________

1. Elementary.

1. What is an 'Attribute'? Give examples.

2. When is it good sense to put "is" or "are" between two names? Give examples.

3. When is it NOT good sense? Give examples.

4. When it is NOT good sense, what is the simplest agreement to make, in order to make good sense?

5. Explain 'Proposition', 'Term', 'Subject', and 'Predicate'. Give examples.

6. What are 'Particular' and 'Universal' Propositions? Give examples.

7. Give a rule for knowing, when we look at the smaller Diagram, what Attributes belong to the things in each compartment.

8. What does "some" mean in Logic? [See pp. 55, 6]

9. In what sense do we use the word 'Universe' in this Game?

10. What is a 'Double' Proposition? Give examples.

11. When is a class of Things said to be 'exhaustively' divided? Give examples.

12. Explain the phrase "sitting on the fence."

13. What two partial Propositions make up, when taken together, "all x are y"?

14. What are 'Individual' Propositions? Give examples.

15. What kinds of Propositions imply, in this Game, the EXISTENCE of their Subjects?

16. When a Proposition contains more than two Attributes, these Attributes may in some cases be re-arranged, and shifted from one Term to the other. In what cases may this be done? Give examples.

__________

Break up each of the following into two partial Propositions:

17. All tigers are fierce.

18. All hard-boiled eggs are unwholesome.

19. I am happy.

20. John is not at home.

__________

[See pp. 56, 7]

21. Give a rule for knowing, when we look at the larger Diagram, what Attributes belong to the Things contained in each compartment.

22. Explain 'Premisses', 'Conclusion', and 'Syllogism'. Give examples.

23. Explain the phrases 'Middle Term' and 'Middle Terms'.

24. In marking a pair of Premisses on the larger Diagram, why is it best to mark NEGATIVE Propositions before AFFIRMATIVE ones?

25. Why is it of no consequence to us, as Logicians, whether the Premisses are true or false?

26. How can we work Syllogisms in which we are told that "some x are y" is to be understood to mean "the Attribute x, y are COMPATIBLE", and "no x are y" to mean "the Attributes x, y are INCOMPATIBLE"?

27. What are the two kinds of 'Fallacies'?

28. How may we detect 'Fallacious Premisses'?

29. How may we detect a 'Fallacious Conclusion'?

30. Sometimes the Conclusion, offered to us, is not identical with the correct Conclusion, and yet cannot be fairly called 'Fallacious'. When does this happen? And what name may we give to such a Conclusion?

[See pp. 57-59]

2. Half of Smaller Diagram.

Propositions to be represented.


                        -----------
                       |     |     |
                       |     x     |
                       |     |     |
                        --y-----y'-

__________

1. Some x are not-y.

2. All x are not-y.

3. Some x are y, and some are not-y.

4. No x exist.

5. Some x exist.

6. No x are not-y.

7. Some x are not-y, and some x exist.

__________

Taking x="judges"; y="just";

8. No judges are just.

9. Some judges are unjust.

10. All judges are just.

__________

Taking x="plums"; y="wholesome";

11. Some plums are wholesome.

12. There are no wholesome plums.

13. Plums are some of them wholesome, and some not.

14. All plums are unwholesome.

[See pp. 59, 60]

                          -----
                         |     |
                         |     x
                         |     |
                         |--y--|
                         |     |
                         |     x'
                         |     |
                          -----

__________

Taking y="diligent students"; x="successful";

15. No diligent students are unsuccessful.

16. All diligent students are successful.

17. No students are diligent.

18. There are some diligent, but unsuccessful, students.

19. Some students are diligent.

[See pp. 60, 1]

The Game of Logic Page 12

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