Altogether, a most unsatisfactory Pair of Premisses!

      ---------------
     | 0     |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 1 |   |   |
20.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 0 | 0 |   |       | 1 |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     | 0     |       |       | 0 |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "things" be Universe; m="medicine"; x="nasty"; y="senna".

All m are x; &there4 All y are x. All y are m.

i.e. Senna is nasty.

[See remarks on No. 7, p 60.]

      ---------------
     |       |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 0 | 1 |   |
21.  |-1-|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 0 |   |   |       |   | 1 |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     |       |       |       |   |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "persons" be Universe; m="Jews"; x="rich"; y="Patagonians".

Some m are x; &there4 Some x are y'. All y are m'.

i.e. Some rich persons are not Patagonians.

      ---------------
     | 0     |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   |   -   |   |
22.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 0 | 0 |   |       |   |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     | 0     |       |       | 0 |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "creatures" be Universe; m="teetotalers"; x="that like sugar"; y="nightingales".

All m are x; &there4 No y are x'. No y are m'.

i.e. No nightingales dislike sugar.

      ---------------
     |       |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 0 | 0 |   |
23.  |-1-|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 0 |   |   |       |   |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     |       |       |       |   |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "food" be Universe; m="wholesome"; x="muffins"; y="buns".

No x are m; All y are m.

There is 'no information' for the smaller Diagram; so no Conclusion can be drawn.

      ---------------
     |       |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 0 | 0 |   |
24.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 1 |   |   |       |   |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     |       |       |       | 1 |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "creatures" be Universe; m="that run well"; x="fat"; y="greyhounds".

No x are m; &there4 Some y are x'. Some y are m.

i.e. Some greyhounds are not fat.


      ---------------
     |       |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   |   -   |   |
25.  |-1-|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 0 | 0 |   |       |   |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     |       |       |       |   |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "persons" be Universe; m="soldiers"; x="that march"; y="youths".

All m are x; Some y are m'.

There is 'no information' for the smaller Diagram; so no Conclusion can be drawn.

      ---------------
     | 0     |     0 |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 0 | 1 |   |
26.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   | 0 |   |   |       | 0 | 1 |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     | 1     |       |       | 1 |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "food" be Universe; m="sweet"; x="sugar"; y="salt".

All x are m; &there4 All x are y'. All y are m'. All y are x'.

i.e. Sugar is not salt. Salt is not sugar.

      ---------------
     |       |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 1 | 0 |   |
27.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   |   | 0 |   |       | 1 |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     |       |       |       |   |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "Things" be Universe; m="eggs"; x="hard-boiled"; y="crackable".

Some m are x; &there4 Some x are y. No m are y'.

i.e. Some hard-boiled things can be cracked.

      ---------------
     | 0     |       |
     |    ---|---    |
     |   | 0 | 0 |   |
28.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   |   |   |   |       | 0 |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     | 0     |       |       |   |   |
      ---------------         -------

Let "persons" be Universe; m="Jews"; x="that are in the house"; y="that are in the garden".

No m are x; &there4 No x are y. No m' are y.

i.e. No persons, that are in the house, are also in the garden.


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     | 0     |     0 |
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     |   |   -   |   |
29.  |---|---|---|---|        -------
     |   |   |   |   |       |   |   |
     |    ---|---    |       |---|---|
     | 1     |     0 |       | 1 |   |
      ---------------         -------

The Game of Logic Page 21

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